Intersociety:

2,200 Nigerian Christians hacked to death in 2020 and 34,400 since 2009

 

…. names ICC & Nigerian Government as remote drivers of anti-Christian butcheries in Nigeria

 

....unveils report on new wave of anti Christian butcheries in Africa’s Coastal Christian States & Nigeria

 

 

This Special Report Is Dedicated To Victims Of Anti-Christian Violence In Nigeria

 

 

Executive Summary

 

(Onitsha, Eastern Nigeria, Wednesday, 16th Dec 2020): The Int’l Society for Civil Liberties & Rule of Law is dedicating this 13-page special report on: new wave of anti Christian butcheries in Africa’s Coastal Christian States and Nigeria, to all the victims of anti Christian butcheries and other forms of violence against Christians in Nigeria and beyond the borders of the country. The victims of Nigeria’s anti Christian violence we are dedicating this special report to include the massacred, the maimed, the disfigured, the amputated, the traumatized, the raped, the disappeared, the displaced, the homeless, the enslaved, the converted and the threatened. The special report is also mortally and immortally popularly demanded and fallout of our interactions with the spirits of those who were violently departed on the grounds of their religion and belief as well as firm promises we made to them.

 

 

Intersociety has been following the killing of Christians by jihadists in Nigeria or any part thereof including their patterns and trends since 2010 and has graphically done same this year, from the start of Jan to this date, 13th Dec 2020. We have also followed the atrocious and hateful conducts of the Nigerian Army including targeted killing of defenseless civilians on the grounds of their religion and ethnicity since Jan 2020 and since 2015.

 

 

Our special report is also in commemoration of this year’s 72 World Human Rights Day, a weeklong global event that officially commenced on 10th Dec 2020, being Thursday last week.  The special report, to be published in three phases including this four-page Executive Summary, is a summed up compendium of ‘the new wave of ‘genocidal radical Islamism’, threatening the Africa’s Coastal Christian States particularly the Christian held rainforest regions of Nigeria, a region with not less than 90m Christians. The special report is an eye opener to all and sundry with loaded facts and intellectual ingredients for general global community and the regional and international strategic partners and research institutions.

 

 

One of two striking features in the special report is the blacklisting of the Int’l Criminal Court (ICC) and the Government of Nigeria as “remote drivers of the anti Christian butcheries and other forms of violence against Christians in Nigeria”. We have reasoned correctly that ‘had the ICC under Prosecutor Fatou Bom Bensouda, whose nine-year single tenure elapses by June 2021 and Nigerian Government couriered and installed ICC President, Mr. Chile Eboe-Osuji, whose first tenure elapses by April 2021, lived up to their sworn sacred duties as clearly provided in the ICC Statute or Charter, 80%, if not 90% of the 34,400 massacred Christians and estimated 20,000 moderate Muslims’ deaths since 2009/2010, in addition to most of over 17,000 burnt or destroyed churches and 2000 Christian schools would have been secured’. ICC has endlessly since 2010 “commenced investigations on Nigeria”, yet ten years down the line, killing fields and graveyards in the country have increased with rapid speed.

 

 

We are therefore shocked and deeply dismayed over provocative excuses given by the outgoing Prosecutor of the Court in her public statement few days ago that her Office delayed from attending to trailer-load of petitions from Nigeria so as “to give the Nigerian Government (a key perpetrator) ample opportunity and time to redress the listed crimes’ classified under ‘Crimes against Humanity’ and ‘War Crimes’. Intersociety has not only lost total faith in the duo but also held that ‘nothing good whatsoever shall come from the outgoing Prosecutor and the outgoing President of the Court’. 

 

 

This is more so when the Court under them is doing everything possible to impress and shield the present central Government of Nigeria from grisly or ‘industrial scale’ crimes it has committed over the years. Typical example is the Court’s outgoing leadership’s obvious lukewarm attitude towards enlisting Jihadist Fulani Herdsmen in its list of atrocity and heinous crimes perpetrators and more attention paid to Boko Haram. Nigerians and the world may not be surprised to hear from the Court soonest that “it is only investigating or has found merit in the crimes committed by Boko Haram and the Nigerian security agencies from May 2015 and backward or below”.  

 

It is on the basis of the above, therefore, that we are calling for sustained international campaigns and efforts at ensuring the final exit of the duo from the leadership of the Court. In other words, lovers and apostles of justice all over the world must not only ensure that Mr. Chile Eboe-Osuji is not returned in April 2021 as second term President of ICC, but also get a new charismatic and statesmanlike elected as the new President of the Court.  Madam Fatou Bom Bensouda, on her part, must no longer be taken serious. As a matter of fact, she should be assisted in packing her luggage out of the ICC Prosecutor’s Office at The Hague. Powerful State-Parties to ICC, including the Great Britain, France, Germany, Netherlands, Brazil, Denmark, Switzerland, Australia, Japan, South Africa and Portugal and powerfully influential watchdogs like Amnesty Int’l and Human Rights Watch and Britain’s eminent activist Parliamentarians, etc are respectfully prayed and called upon to take note.

 

 

The second striking feature in our special report is our forensic updates on the number of defenseless Christians killed by the country’s non state actor jihadist groups in 2020 and those killed since 2009. Also captured are defenseless Christians killed by Nigeria’s heavily Muslim controlled or dominated security forces particularly the Nigerian Army. The Nigerian Army is majorly responsible for 200 Christian deaths in 2020 alone and 1,400 since August 2015. Our inclusion of Christians killed by the Army in particular as well as some killed by Police and Air Force followed our careful observation and study of the composition and hateful conducts of the trio particularly by soldiers of the Nigerian Army. 

 

 

Such hateful killings are targeted at particular citizens of the country on the grounds of their religion and ethnicity.  For instance, our assessment of the Obigbo Army Massacre, Emene Army Massacre, Lekki Army Massacre, Takum-Taraba Tiv Christians massacred by the Army in June 2020 and the Oct 2020 EndSARS killings in the Southeast majorly perpetrated by the Army and Police, clearly indicate that the victims were hatefully targeted and hatefully killed or maimed on the grounds of their ethnic and religious backgrounds. Their killers are also found to be selectively composed and lumped along ethno-religious lines hateful of the victims and their ethno-religious backgrounds.

 

 

Death Of 2,200 Nigerian Christians In 2020: From Jan 2020 to this 13th Dec 2020, Intersociety has statistically found that as much as or not less than 2,200 Christians are most likely to have been killed in Nigeria and out of this figure, Jihadist Fulani Herdsmen is responsible for as much as or not less than 1,300 Christian deaths, followed by Boko Haram and its splinter groups (ISWAP and Ansaru) with 500 Christian deaths, Nigerian Army 200 Christian deaths and Jihadist “Bandits” 100 Christian deaths. The 500 Christian deaths by Boko Haram and its splinter groups, arrived at using 60% Muslim and 40% Christian casualty calculation or ratio, had arisen from estimated 1,200 defenseless civilians killed by the jihadists from 1st Jan to 13th Dec 2020. In other words, Nigeria in 2020 has lost average of six Christians per day and 180 per month.

 

 

 

It is strongly and circumstantially suspected that the Nigerian security forces particularly the Army, the Police, the Spy Police and the country’s non state actor jihadists have in this 2020 carried out as much as or not less than 100 secret executions, done on the grounds of ethnicity and religion; involving those secretly arrested or abducted and taken into their secret detention facilities or camps manned by the jihadists from where they were likely to have been secretly executed. The addition of this figure therefore brings the total number of defenseless citizens killed this year (2020) on religious and ethnicity grounds by Nigerian security forces and Islamic Jihadists to 2,200. This figure is subject to further updates in the remaining eighteen days of 2020, if the killings are continued.

 

 

 

The targeted and systematic killing of Christians in 2020 by the Jihadist Fulani Herdsmen, leading to as much as or not less than 1,300 Christian deaths had occurred in Southern Kaduna which recorded the highest number with at least 455 Christian deaths, followed by Benue State with 210 deaths, Plateau State 173, Niger State 70, Kogi State 55, Nasarawa State 42, Adamawa State 40, Igbo Land including Igbo parts of Delta and Benue 40, Taraba State 32, Southwest Region about 35, non Igbo parts of Delta 20, Edo State 15 and Bayelsa State 4. The 1,300 Jihadist Fulani Herdsmen massacred Christians include at least 50 abducted Christians, mainly abducted about five months ago in Jihadist Fulani Herdsmen attacks on Christian settlements and farmlands in Kaduna as well as addition of ‘dark figure’ of 70. The “dark figure”, a valid research principle in criminology, represents those Christians killed but went unreported or not documented.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Statistical Instances Of Recent Jihadist Herdsmen Killings

 

Among the recent killings by the Jihadist Fulani Herdsmen are: Kefas Malachy Bobai, 30years and Miss Takama Paul, 16 years old student, killed on 18th August in Gora Ward, Zagon Kataf  Local Government Area (LGA), Kaduna. On 17th August, Bulus Joseph, 48 years, was killed in his farm in Sabon Gida Idon along Kaduna-Kachia Road in Kajuru Local Government Area of Kaduna State. On 16th August, Pastor Adalchi Usman was killed in Kajuru LGA, Kaduna State. Citizens Mariah Na’Allah, Shekari and Ezekiel Maikasa also met their untimely death same day and a driver, Citizen Danlami Dariya was abducted and disappeared. On same 16th August, Christian Village Head of Bugai, near Banikanwa in Kachia LGA, Mr. Dan’azuumi, 67 years of age and his siblings: Aniya Musa, Kande Musa- his 97 years old mother and Angelina Irmiya, his 45 years old younger sister, were also killed.

 

 

 

On 6th Sept, 2020, Rev Alubara Audu, Adamu Tata and Ishaku Peter were killed in Buda Ward, Kajuru LGA in Kaduna State. On 26th Oct, Mr. Kaduna Garba, an Adara Christian native, was killed as well as Citizen Dachomo Alamba, a native of Atyap and five other Christians from same area were all killed by the Jihadist Fulani Herdsmen. On 29th Nov 2020, six Christians were hacked to death by the Jihadist Fulani Herdsmen in Ungwan Bido in Jema’a LGA, Kaduna State and their names were given as: Silas Maman, Malaki Tabat, Geofrey Andrew, Annah Ahmadu, Sunday Tagwah and Fidelis Musa. Houses belonging to Adamu Mangai, Gideon Nuhu, Andrew Adamu and Alphonsus Michael were razed while two children: Rebecca Andrew and Clement Andrew got abducted.

 

 

 

On Friday night, 11th Dec 2020, around 11pm, Jihadist Fulani Herdsmen attacked Tse-Angbande Community in Makurdi Local Government Area of Benue State and killed at least four Christians who were members of the same family. Their names were given as: Timothy Emberga Akwa, Innocent Akwa, Terhemba Akwa and an in-law, simply identified as Orban. By the account of the NigerianLawyer.com, a respected online news, dated 16th Dec 2020, in one of their latest rounds of anti Christian butcheries, the Jihadist Fulani Herdsmen, Barr Moses Udam, his wife and Mr. Nyiko, a blind man and three of his grand children were in the late hours (around 11pm) of Tuesday, 15th Dec 2020 hacked to death in their compounds. While Late Barr Moses Udam, who just celebrated his birthday, was hacked to death after being shot with rifles and ‘macheted’, his wife was raped mercilessly before being hacked to death with gunshots and machetes. Their killing took place at Agboughol, Kpeifi behind NSK Church along Kua Road in Makurdi, Benue State, North-Central Nigeria. These instances are just to highlight but a few.

 

 

 

Death Of 34,400 Nigerian Christians Since 2009

 

From the killing of Christians in Nigeria monitored and investigated through open and closed sources by Intersociety in the past ten years or since 2010, the anti Christian killings which majorly started in July 2009 have as at this date, 13th Dec 2020 led to estimated 34,400 Christian deaths. This figure includes 1,400 Christians massacred since August 2015 by the country’s security forces particularly the Army, Police and Air Force. On the other hand, this number did not include over 12,000 Christians who formed over half of internationally estimated 24,000 abducted and disappeared persons who went missing since 2009 same year Boko Haram launched its uprising against Christians and then Government of Nigeria. Boko Haram and its splinter jihadist groups, excluding Jihadist Fulani Herdsmen, have been accused of killing not less than 39,000 defenseless civilians in Nigeria since 2009.

 

 

 

Boko Haram & Ors Have Killed 17,000 Christians Since 2009

 

Over 17,000 defenseless Christians have been hacked to death since July 2009 by Boko Haram and its splinter groups, out of which, 8,370 were members of the Church of the Brethren in Nigeria, a dominant church in the Boko Haram insurgency affected States of Taraba, Adamawa, Yobe and Borno. The remaining 8,630 slain Christians are spread among other Christian denominations dominant in the Boko Haram insurgency affected areas and among them are Catholics, Anglicans, Pentecostals and members of ECWA and African Instituted Churches. Specifically, Boko Haram jihadists killed estimated 11,400 Christians between July 2009 and Jan 2014 and over 6,200 between Jan 2015 and 13th Dec 2020. In 2020 alone, estimated 500 Christians have been hacked to death by the Jihadist Sect and its splinter groups.

 

 

 

Jihadist Fulani Herdsmen Have Killed 15,500 Christians Since 2010

 

Jihadist Fulani Herdsmen, on their part, were responsible for death of estimated 6,000 Christians between Jan 2010 and Dec 2014 and between 9,500 between Jan 2015 and 13th Dec 2020; totaling 15,500 Christian deaths in ten years or since 2010. In 2020 alone, Jihadist Fulani Herdsmen have been responsible for death of as much as or not less than 1300 Christians.

 

 

 

Jihadist “Bandits” Have Killed 500 Christians Since 2016

 

The Jihadist “Bandits” have been responsible for estimated 500 Christian deaths in the past four years or since 2016. In this 2020, not less than 100 Christian deaths have also been recorded in their butchery hands.

 

 

 

Nigerian Army, Police & Air Force Have Killed 1,400 Judeo-Christians Since 2015

 

The Nigerian security forces particularly the Army, Air Force and Police have killed on religious and ethnicity grounds a total of 1,400 defenseless Judeo-Christians in five years or since August 2015 and among them are not less than 200 shot and killed in 2020 alone. Not less than 800 others were also shot and deadly injured and among them, dozens have been crippled for life.

 

 

 

Possible Secret Execution Of 100 Nigerian Christians In 2020 By Government & Jihadists

 

From our advocacy observation concerning the hate conducts of the Nigerian security forces, heavily Muslim dominated, it is strongly and circumstantially suspected that the country’s Army, Police and Spy Police; joined by the non state actor jihadists have in this 2020 carried out as much as or not less than 100 secret executions, targeting citizens of Judeo-Christian faith.

 

 

 

End Of Executive Summary

 

 

 

Realities On The Ground In Nigeria

 

The realities on the ground strongly support the US President, the UK Parliamentarians and other international opinions concerning the ongoing massacre of Christians and terrorization of their worship centers and other properties in Nigeria or any part thereof. Chief among these international and commendable bold steps is the placement on Monday, 7th Dec 2020 by the Government of the United States of Nigeria into the int’l Religious Freedom blacklist for “engaging in systematic, ongoing and egregious religious freedom violations”. This is a bold step in the right direction.

 

 

 

It must be statistically understood that Africa, a continent of internationally estimated population of 1,216 billion people (2018 estimates), is presently home to some 620m Christians with about 16% or 100m Christians living in Nigeria and about 13% or 80m Christians found in the Democratic Republic of Congo. Presently, over 250m Christians are facing egregious state actor and non state actor persecutions worldwide. The persecutions include attacks on Christian centers and massacre of Christian faithful in tens of thousands and maiming of others also in tens of thousands annually.

 

 

 

In Nigeria, between 2000 and 2500 Christians are killed annually since 2015 by beastly non state actors or genocidal jihadists and their patron state actor counterparts. In 2020 alone, Nigeria has lost 2,200 Christians. The anti Christian butcheries in the country got raised in 2009 when Boko Haram launched a ferocious uprising against Christians and then Christian led Government of Nigeria and became menacingly escalated from mid 2015 following the emergence of a pro Islamic central Government in the country.  Like Jihadist Janjaweed in Sudan under the ousted Islamic Government of Omar Hassan el-Bashir, the non state actor chief driver of Nigeria’s jihadist attacks on Christians, are the Jihadist Fulani Herdsmen, backed and protected since mid 2015 by the present central authorities in the country.

 

 

 

Since mid 2015, the Nigerian authorities have maintained high level of intolerance and seemingly annihilative policy against Christians, their worship centers and properties including lands. These have indisputably been manifested or demonstrated through appointments, policies and conducts of the same Government. Under int’l and compatible local criminal laws, finding head of a Government and other atrocious elements in his or her Government culpable or guilty of grisly crimes against humanity including massacre of Christians and levying war against their properties (i.e. churches and lands); doctrine of ‘vicarious liability’ and principle of ‘circumstantial evidence’ are the surest and inescapable grounds.

 

 

 

In other words, President Muhammadu Buhari and other atrocity perpetrators in his heavily Muslim controlled Government of Nigeria are inescapably, vicariously and circumstantially guilty as accused. In UAE, an Abu Dhabi Federal Court of Appeel recently upheld the conviction of six Nigerians for funding of Boko Haram by illicit money transfers totaling $782,000, which took place between 2015 and 2016. While Surajo Abubakar Muhammad, a Fulani and Saleh Yusuf Adamu bagged life jails, four others: Ibhrahim Ali Alhassan, AbdulRahman Ado Musa, Bashir Ali Yusuf and Muhammad Ibrahim Isa (a Fulani) got ten years sentence each. The convicts, according to Court documents, were tried and convicted first in 2019.  The illicit transactions were facilitated by two undercover Boko Haram agents based in Nigeria, identified as: ‘Alhaji Sa’idu’ and ‘Alhaji Ashiru’. The later was discovered to be an official of the Government of Nigeria.

 

Regionally or in Africa, it must be noted that just the same way the ‘Wind of Change’ of the 90s blew across the Continent and swept away a good number of African dictators and tyrants; Africa, especially its Christian held parts including West Africa’s coastal States, this time around, are seriously under the threat of ‘the wind of’ radical Islamism and jihad’ or radical Islamic terrorism. Islamic terrorism and their terrorists who have risen formidably in Sahel and Maghreb areas, joined by the Fulani, Shuwa (or Baggara) and Kanuri jihadists from Sudan, Chad, Senegal, Mali, Niger, Nigeria and Cameroon, etc are threatening with great speed to take over and Islamize the territories and Governments of Christian held areas of the continent and some secular Muslim countries and their Governments.

 

 

 

Statistical Examples

 

There are now rapid speedy increases in the number of Islamic insurgencies and insurgents in major Africa’s Christian dominated countries including Ivory Coast and Togo presently threatened by jihadists originating from the Sahel. Burkina Faso is presently home to Ansarul Islam and Islamic State of Iraq & ash-sham networks in the Greater Sahara. In Democratic Republic of Congo (with 80m Christians), Congo Republic and Uganda, all Christian dominated, the jihadist groups terrorizing the areas are allied under “the Islamic State for Central Africa Province” and one of the most deadly wrecking havoc in DRC is “the Allied Democratic Forces”, responsible for death of hundreds of rural Christians in the country annually.

 

 

 

In the Central African Republic (CAR), the Seleka Jihadists, involving Fulani jihadists and others successfully revolted and took over reign of power in March 2013; in a country with 91% Christians. In Mozambique, a jihadist group, “Ansar al-Sunna”, affiliated to the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL), has killed hundreds of Christians and security personnel. In Ethiopia and Kenya, the main jihadist group wrecking havoc in the two countries is the al-Shabaab jihadist group, which had killed and is still killing many including civilians and security personnel. The Republic of Eritrea, a country of 63% Christians, is also facing imminent invasion by Islamic jihadists. This is more so when “jihadists, according to a deeply worried African Christian, are like ants, you hardly know when they have arrived your backyard”.

 

 

 

In Mali, a moderate Muslim country, the trio of al-Mulathamun Battalion, al-Qaeda affiliated Jama’at Nusrat al-Islam Muslimmin (JNIM) and Islamic State of Iraq and ash-sham networks in the Greater Shara jihadist groups are the country’s leading jihadist terror groups. In Niger Republic, another moderate Muslim country, the Islamic State of Iraq and ash-sham networks in the Greater Sahara, Islamic State for West Africa Province (ISWAP)and Boko Haram terror jihadists are the leading jihadist groups; likewise in the Republics of Chad (moderate Muslim country) and Cameroon (Christian dominated). Other Christian dominated African countries facing threats of Islamic terror jihadism are Sierra Leone, Liberia, Ghana, Benin Republic, Tanganyika (Christian part of Tanzania), Namibia, Zimbabwe, Zambia, South Africa and so on.  The above instances are just to highlight but a few.

 

 

 

In Nigeria, a country of UN estimated 206m and roughly 50-50 Christians and Muslims, Christian populations, their worship centers and other properties including ancestral lands, are at high risk of being lost or violently occupied and possessed by radical Islamists. These state backed attacks have been on steady increase since mid 2015. Already some 500 or more indigenous Christian communities and their lands have been lost to Jihadist Fulani Herdsmen in Plateau State, Southern Kaduna and Benue States and Boko Haram in Borno, Taraba and Adamawa States. These communities and their ancestral lands are presently occupied and terrorized by the state backed Jihadist Fulani Herdsmen. In some lost Christian communities in Taraba, Adamawa and Borno States, Mosques have been built to replace ruined or destroyed or burnt churches with surviving Christians in the areas being offered incentives or threatened to be converted to Islam.

 

 

 

Nigeria, presently, is also home to 20 Islamic jihadist or terror groups that massacre thousands of Christians yearly and levy property wars against them. The 20 jihadist groups are originally five in number with additional 15 splinter groups. They are: Islamic State in the West African Province (ISWAP), Boko Haram (two splinter groups), Ansaru or Movement for the Emancipation of Muslims in Black Africa, Jihadist Fulani Herdsmen and their Shuwa and Kanuri affiliates and the Jihadist ‘Bandits and their 12 splinter groups’, totaling five main jihadist terror groups and 15 splinter groups or 20 main and sub jihadist groups.

 

Among these 20 jihadist groups operating in Nigeria, the Jihadist Fulani Herdsmen, backed by the country’s security forces since mid 2015, are the widest and most atrocious. Their jihadist activities wholly and originally targeted at Christians of the Old Middle Belt and other Northern Christian areas including Southern Kaduna, Plateau, Benue, Kogi, Nasarawa, Adamawa and Taraba States and lately Christian parts of Niger State and the Federal Capital Territory (Abuja); have now spread to all Christian held parts of the country including Southeast and South-south and most of the Christian areas of the Southwest. Presently and under the watchful eyes of the Nigerian Military, the Police and compromised local Governors, they have violently moved in and occupied over 600 bushes, forests and farmlands located in Igbo Land including Igbo parts of Benue, Kogi, Delta and Edo States.

 

 

 

The Jihadist Fulani Herdsmen also engage in intra Islamic Jihad by targeting and attacking indigenous Hausa Muslim population. This, they share in common with Fulani controlled ‘Jihadist Bandits’, targeting and attacking indigenous Hausa Muslims in Muslim part of Kaduna, Katsina, Sokoto and Zamfara and some Muslim parts of Niger State which have led to killing of over 600 indigenous Hausa Muslims specifically in Katsina, Zamfara-Kaduna axis and Sokoto in 2020”. The Nigerian Government has continuously labeled such killings as “banditry attacks” by Muslims against fellow Muslims.

 

 

 

The Jihadist “Bandits” and their 12 splinter groups are also found to have spread across and become more active in Zamfara, Sokoto, Katsina, Northern and Southern Kaduna, Niger State and some parts of the North-Central Region including remote parts of the Federal Capital Territory or Abuja. The Zamfara-Birnin Gwari bound Jihadist “Bandits”, originally called “Zamfara Bandits”; are responsible for killing of hundreds of mainly Christian travelers (with asymmetric number of Muslim victims) and rural others and abduction of hundreds particularly along Kaduna-Birnin Gwari, Abuja-Kaduna-Kano, Lokoja-Abuja and Nasarawa-Abuja Highways or Federal Roads. Motives behind their killings and abductions are jihad, sexual violence and monetary ransom.  

 

 

 

On the other hand, Boko Haram and ISWAP jihadist groups are majorly found in Nigeria’s Northeast Region particularly in Borno, Adamawa, Taraba and Yobe States. Ansaru Jihadists, on the other hand, are found to be clandestinely based majorly in the Birnin Gwari Forests between Kaduna and Zamfara axis and are making inroads with Boko Haram and Jihadist “Bandits” into the forests of Niger State, Nigeria’s largest Landmass State, measuring 76,000km2. Boko Haram also operates skeletally in Gombe and Bauchi States. The three Jihadist Groups also have capabilities to launch jihadist attacks against Christians and their worship centers in any part of the country using the existing Jihadist Fulani Herdsmen’s country-wide grazing routes and networks as well as recently formed alliances by all Islamic Jihadist groups operating in Nigeria.

 

 

 

At the state actor level, the heavily Muslim controlled central Government of Nigeria and the leadership of the country’s Army, also heavily Muslim dominated; are responsible for massacre of not less than 1400 Christians and Jewish religionists between 2015 and 2020. The state actor killings on religious and ethnic grounds included death of 530 Christians in Northern Nigeria (mostly occurred in Jan and Dec 2017 and 2018) and 480 in Southern Nigeria (occurred between August 2015 and Sept 2017).  In 2020 alone, the Nigerian Army has killed not less than 200 Judeo-Christians including 30 killed in June in Taraba, over of half of not less than 20 mostly Christians killed at Lekki-Lagos State in Oct, over 30 killed in Emene-Enugu in August, over 50 killed in the Southeast in Oct (EndSARS hate killings by soldiers and police) and over 60 killed in Obigbo-Rivers State in Oct.

 

 

 

The hate killings on the ground of religion by the Nigerian Army also affected the Shiite Muslims or Islamic Movement in Nigeria who have lost not less than 1300 members since 12th Dec 2015. Between 12th and 14th Dec 2015, the Nigerian Army led by its Chief of Staff, Lt Gen Yusuf Tukur Buratai opened fire at Shiites in procession observing their annual religious rituals and killed hundreds. The Army later organized further genocidal attacks against the unarmed group on 13th and 14th Dec 2015 leading to total death of over 1000 including 297 women, 23 pregnant women, 548 men, 193 children and wiping out of 39 Shiite families.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

In all, the Nigerian Military has been responsible for at least 2,700 executions or killings since 2015. This category of butchery is internationally classified as “Crimes against Humanity”, having been carried out in non war situations. Amnesty Int’l has also in its latest report alleged that the Nigerian Army is responsible for at least 10,000 deaths in its custody since 2011, with many of them dying of starvation, suffocation and diseases in the infamous Giwa Barracks in Borno State. Their death is “War Crimes” related.

 

 

 

Therefore, the most dangerous dimension to radical Islamism in Nigeria is its secret rise and spread and clandestine control of state power through Fulani Jihadism. In other words, the Nigerian Government’s major local and foreign policy direction, in clandestine practice, is “Fulani Jihadism”- a policy pursued with utter alacrity and through different colors and disguises including pro jihadist or radical Islamic policies and conducts.  To cover up these, the present Nigerian Government has also created an international machinery of falsehood and propaganda with well funded or oiled international lobbying campaigns targeted at misinforming and misleading key and strategic international legislative, diplomatic and democratic institutions or bodies especially the EU, US, UK and Australia and their Parliaments; the Commonwealth and the UN and other internationally respected state and non state actors.

 

 

 

Debunking Factually Claims Of “Farmers-Herders Clashes”

 

The reality is that the Nigerian Government and its protected Fulani Jihadists are camouflaging the ongoing Fulani Jihadism with decades old Fulani cattle grazing in the country. In other words, the stark truth is that pastoralist Fulani cattle grazing is being used or hidden under to propagate radical Islamism in Nigeria. This is more so when neither Nigeria nor Chad or Niger Republic is among the world’s ten largest producers of cows and in modern day animal husbandry, technology powered ranching methods, not primitive pastoral grazing are industrially in vogue.

 

 

 

Historically speaking, before 1999 or return of Nigeria to civil rule, Fulani Herdsmen were just cattle herders who used the north-middle belt-south ward pastoral grazing routes. These they did and still do using the now globally outdated methods of animal husbandry.  Because of the ‘rain forest’ status of the Middle Belt (Central Nigeria) and Southern Nigeria, the Fulani animal herders or  “Fulani Herdsmen” seasonally visit the two named rain forest Regions with their herds of cattle- for purpose of having access to pasture, water and foliage which dry up in the core North at the heat of dry season.

 

 

 

During such periods, they wander about and hardly settle or live in their host communities and return to their core North bases immediately raining season sets in. Disputes arising during such north-middle belt-south ward movements by the herders are usually between them and farmers over accusations leveled against them such as destruction of farmers’ farm crops. Such disputes when arise are minimally violent and easily resolvable at communal levels between farmers and herders, or without involvement of Government or security forces. These were the correct situations before 1999 especially in Southeast, South-south and Southwest and most parts of the Old Middle Belt, now called North-Central and Northeast Regions.

 

 

 

But after 1999, promoters of radical Islamism including wealthy Northern Muslims and their security and political actors began to fund and radicalize Fulanis and mobilize them for purpose of making the then central Government in Nigeria headed by a Southern Christian ungovernable. Their involvement in sectarian and religious violence became noticeably restricted to Jos and Southern Kaduna. Between 2010 and 2014, their methods of violence changed and moved towards Islamic Jihad using cattle grazing as a cover. The period was heralded with launching of several anti Christian attacks including killings and burning or destruction of churches and violent land grabbing in Plateau (Jos North and Jos South), Southern Kaduna and Benue. By mid 2015, following the presidential emergence of their life patron and a ‘Fulani Daji’, Retired Major Gen Muhammadu Buhari, anti Christian Fulani violence and Islamic Jihadism not only spread and escalated but also became a state policy till date.

 

 

Today, Fulani Jihadism, formerly restricted to Southern Kaduna, Plateau and Benue States, has spread across Nigeria wholly targeting Christian communities or settlements in Plateau, Benue, Southern Kaduna, Taraba, Adamawa, Gombe, Bauchi, Kogi, Nassarawa and Niger States and the Federal Capital Territory; all in the North and States of Ondo, Ogun, Oyo, Ekiti and Osun in the Southwest; Anambra, Enugu, Imo, Abia and Ebonyi in the Southeast; and Cross River, Edo, Delta, Rivers and Akwa Ibom in the South-South. It is also important to point out that 100% of their victims in the areas named above are Christians and their properties. In other words, there are no records till date of any attack in the areas directed at Muslims and their properties including Mosques and lands.

 

 

In Igbo Christian Southeast and Igbo parts of Delta, Edo, Kogi and Benue States, for instance, recent studies have found that Jihadist Fulanis, protected by the country’s Muslim controlled Military, have moved in and violently occupied over 600 bushes and forests and farmlands located in the areas. Between 2016 and 2020, at least 400 rural Igbo Christians mostly female farmers, children and elderly men have been hacked to death by Jihadist Fulani Herdsmen. Multiple dozens, if not hundreds of unmarried and young married Igbo Christian women have either been charmed and lured into Muslim sex slavery or forcefully married off for onward conversion to Islam or raped in their farmlands and abducted. For purpose of erasing traces, the rape victims are killed including their husbands or relatives that accompanied them to the spots including farmlands. Such atrocities are hardly reported to the authorities or publicly and when rarely done, the authorities including Governors, local council chairmen and community leaders of the affected areas cover or falsify or twist same so as to remain in the good book of the ‘Caliphate’.   

 

 

For clarity, ‘Indigenized’ Fulanis in Nigeria are divided into Home Fulanis or “Fulani Ngida” and Forest Fulanis or “Fulani Daji”. In the ongoing Fulani Jihadism in Nigeria, the ‘Forest Fulanis’ or “Fulani Herdsmen”; joined by Government’s ‘imported’ Shuwa Arabs and foreign Fulani jihadists/mercenaries are the field jihadists who go about mindlessly slaughtering thousands of Christians yearly and seizing and grabbing their lands and burning or destroying their worship and learning centers. On the other hand, ‘Home Fulanis’ who operate under different federally registered organizations in Nigeria are the Fulani Jihadist Terrorism financiers. This they partly share in common with radical Islamists holding strategic state and security powers in country particularly at Federal and some Northern States’ levels. They are the ones covering and protecting the Fulani Jihadism and its Jihadists in the country or any part thereof since mid 2015.

 

 

Another clear evidence of the Government of the day in Nigeria being radical Islamic friendly is the gross lopsidedness or sectional composition of the country’s central Government and its key security, justice, political, legislative and electoral positions, all heavily Muslim controlled presently. This is despite the fact that Nigeria is a country of roughly 50% Christians and 50% Muslims with multi party democracy and a pluralistic democratic Constitution. The heavy domination of the present central Government of Nigeria by Muslims is  a gross breach of Section 10 of the Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria 1999 which forbids ‘adoption of any religion as a state religion’ and Section 42 of same Constitution which guarantees freedom from discrimination. To ensure equitable and balanced representation in appointments into the country’s federal public offices including composition of ‘the officer corps and other ranks of the armed forces of the Federation’, Sections 14 (3) and 217 (3) are provided as a guard and enshrined in the Constitution.  

 

 

However, in both open and clandestine practice, Muslims have heavily dominated the present central Government in Nigeria since mid 2015 to the extent of manning 32 of the country’s 39 top political, security, legislative, judicial and justice positions while Christians are left  to man only seven with some of them in ‘acting capacity’.

 

 

For purpose of verifiable statistics, the 32 top positions held by Muslims are: President of Nigeria (Northern Muslim), President of Senate (Northern Muslim), Speaker of House of Reps (rumored to have been converted to Southwest Muslim), Chief of Army Staff (Northern Muslim)), Chief of Air Staff (same), Inspector Gen of Police (same), DG, SSS (same), DG, NIA (same), National Security Adviser (same), Minister of Defense (same), Minister of Police Affairs (Southwest Muslim) and Comptroller Gen of Customs (same).

 

 

Others are: Comptroller Gen of Immigration (same), Comptroller Gen Prisons or Correctional Service (same), Commandant of the Nigerian Security & Civil Defense Corps (same), Chairman, Independent National Electoral Commission (same), Chairman, Federal Character Commission (same), Attorney Gen of the Federation (same), Chief Justice of Nigeria (same), Acting Chairman of EFCC (same), Chairman, Police Service Commission (Southwest Muslim), CEO/Chairman of NAFDAC (same); and  the Senate and the House of Reps Committee Chairmen on Defense, Interior, Police, Army, Navy, Air Force, National Intelligence, National Security, Customs, Immigration, all Muslims.

 

 

The only Seven Positions held by Christians are: Vice President (Southwest Christian), Chief of Defense Staff (Southwest Christian), Chief of Naval Staff (South-South Christian), Controller Gen, Federal Fire Service (North-Central Christian), Corps Marshall, FRSC (North-central Christian), lately in acting capacity-Chief Judge of the Federal High Court (Christian) and President of the Court of Appeal (Christian).

 

 

Muslims Also Dominate The Following Key Judicial & Security Positions

 

Muslims also dominate commandingly the constitutionally provided 21 serving Justices of the Supreme Court, 49 Justices of the Court of Appeal, 69 Judges of the Federal High Court, all the eight serving DIGs, AIGs, CPs, State CPs, DCPs, ACPs, CSPs and SPs in the Nigeria Police Force especially senior police officers in charge of 17 Police Zonal Commands, 36 State Commands and the FCT; SCIDs, Police Area Commands, Police Marine, Police Border, Police Highway, Police Railway, Police Mobile Force, Police Divisional Commands, and Anti Terror, Anti Cult, Anti Bunkering and Anti Robbery Police in Nigeria as well as their  counterparts or equivalents in the Army, Navy, Air Force, SSS, NIA and the Paramilitaries.

 

 

 Attached below is the link to recent promotions in the Nigerian Army. The skewed and gross lopsidedness in the promotion further buttresses our point and concerns. It is the sum total of the above that fuels attacks on Christians and their properties in Nigeria and escalates the country’s general insecurity.  The link is here:https://www.premiumtimesng.com/investigationspecial-reports/428234-exclusive-nigerian-army-promotes-39-brigadiers-97-colonels-285-others-full-list.html

 

 

Other Jihadist Policies Of The Nigerian Government

 

Extensive investigations and monitoring carried out by us (Int’l Society for Civil Liberties & Rule of Law) have clearly shown that the present Government of Nigeria is practically doing little or nothing to tame or end the systematic anti Christian butcheries and other forms of insecurity ravaging the country since mid 2015. Instead of tackling the violence secularly and competently and in line with the country’s int’l commitments or obligations; the Government of Nigeria is busy applying chameleonic approaches driven by falsehood and propaganda. Apart from having told over 25  lies since mid 2015 to mislead and misinform local and global publics as they concern the Jihadist Fulani Herdsmen butcheries and conspiratorial roles of the country’s security forces, the Nigerian Government has introduced and sustained several clandestine and open policies to drive and sustain the anti Christian butcheries and their supportive policies.  

 

 

The Government of Nigeria and the country’s security forces are so dishonest, for instance, that they lie against the dead and misrepresent or under-represent statistics concerning violent attacks against them including number of deaths associated with their killing. It is so bad that when Christians are killed by Jihadist Fulani Herdsmen, the Government of Nigeria clandestinely will direct the Army Commander or Commissioner of Police in charge of the incident area to organize a press conference denying the killing or linking it falsely to another cause such as “attack by bandits” or “rival communal violence” or “killing associated with kingship/chieftaincy/intra communal violence” or “reprisal violence” or “cult related killing”, or “killing arising from armed robbery and kidnapping”, or “road accidents” etc.  The newest  trick through Government censored media reports is by tagging such killings by Jihadist Fulani Herdsmen as “abducted or abductions by Bandits”.

 

 

 

 

New Anti Christian Killing Methods: (i.e. Abduct & Kill In Captivity)

 

This is one of the newest methods introduced by Jihadist Fulani Herdsmen in killing Christians and burning and destroying their properties particularly their worship and learning centers. This is also likely to be one of the fallouts of consistent international pressures and other concerns regarding the anti Christian butcheries perpetrated by the state backed Jihadist Fulani Herdsmen. The killings are strongly driven by Nigerian Government and its security forces particularly the Army and the Police and supported by the Jihadist Fulani Herdsmen’s patron associations. The disguises are sustained by the Nigerian Government for purpose of misleading and diverting the attention of the international community.

 

 

 

Other new killing methods include tagging the killings as “abductions”, deliberate hiding of religious identities of the victims, increased attacks on victims’ homes and lands particularly farmlands, so as to make it look as if the violence is ‘farmers-herders’ related or conflict over lands; reduction in the attacks on churches and Christian schools and ‘abduct alive and kill later in captivity’. While the number of “abductions” on religious ground has increased with rapid speed in recent months, little or nothing has been heard about the whereabouts and safety of the abducted victims; thereby raising strong suspicion or belief that they must have been killed by their captors in captivity.

 

 

 

It has been severally observed that many, if not most of the Christians abducted in Nigeria by Jihadist Fulani Herdsmen, masqueraded by Government and censored media as “Bandits”, are killed in captivity. In other words, they hardly return alive. In some cases, some of them are allowed to live after being converted to Islam. Few cases arise when the abductees of the Jihadist Fulani Herdsmen are forced to pay ransoms for their freedom. It must be stressed further that though all the Jihadist groups in Nigeria are Fulani dominated and controlled, but abductions by Jihadist “Bandits” are mostly for payment of ransoms and sometimes-for purpose of conversion to Islam in fulfillment of agreements governed by recent alliances formed back in July by all the Islamic Jihadist Groups operating in Nigeria. The Nigerian Government and the censored media are specifically responsible for false labeling of Fulani Herdsmen’s jihadist attacks on Christians as “attacks by Bandits”. This has been the case, of late, in Christian parts of Niger State including Christian communities in Rafi, Munya and Shiroro Local Government Areas of the State.

 

 

 

Statistical example of the above was the recent “abduction” (killing) of dozens of defenseless citizens-believed to be Christians which took place in Christian areas located in Munya, Rafi and Shiroro Local Government Areas of Niger State. The attacks were carried out by Jihadist Fulani Herdsmen, but the Government and censored media reports falsely claimed that the attackers “were Bandits”. According to local media reports (suspected censored), at least 19 people were kidnapped by gunmen in Ogu and Tegina communities in Rafi Local Government Area (LGA) of Niger State. A resident of Ogu, Kamal Wayam, decried that the attackers stormed the community on Sunday morning (13th Dec 2020) and started shooting into the air. According to him, “the gunmen in their large number arrived in Ogu on motorcycles and before we knew what was happening, they started shooting into the air”. Similarly, the attack on Tegina community was said to have happened at about 12:30am on Monday (14th Dec 2020) with 16 people abducted. The latest attacks in Rafi LGA came barely four days after gunmen abducted a youth leader of a local ruling political party, the District Head of Gunna, and two children of two health workers in Garin Gabbas and Yakila communities in the local government.

 

According to Nigeria’s Punch Newspaper report of 15th Dec 2020, titled: “(Fulani) Bandits Raid Niger Churches, Kill Pastor, Abduct Wife, Others”,a 37-year-old pastor with the Evangelical Church Winning All in Chikuba town in the Shiroro Local Government Area of Niger State, Reverend Jeremiah Ibrahim, has been killed by (Fulani) bandits. He was killed last Thursday, 10th Dec 2020 when the assailants invaded his church. The Secretary of the Minna District Council of ECWA, Reverend Adamu Na’Allah, disclosed this in Minna after the burial of the cleric. He said Ibrahim was in Chikuba to harvest some crops from his farm in the village. Before they could start the harvest, the (Fulani) bandits came and attacked the clergy house.

 

It was gathered that the two pastors hid in the ceiling of the house and when they thought the coast was clear, they came down and unknown to them, the (Fulani) bandits were still around. Ibrahim, who came down first, was killed. He said five others, all women, were abducted by the (Fulani) bandits, including the deceased’s wife. Na’Allah said (scores of) people in a neighboring Kuchi village were also kidnapped by the same set of (Fulani) bandits. The Church district secretary said another attack on the clergy house at Ka’ala village in Munya Local Government Area took place on Sunday night (13th Dec 2020), but the resident reverend and his family had already left the building. Asked if they reported the incident to the government, Na’Allah said they did not because previous complaints were not attended to. This is coming barely two weeks after six missionaries of ECWA and the wife of one of them were abducted,” he added. He stated that the clergyman has since been buried.

 

In all, over 50 defenseless Christians were abducted in less than one month or late between late Nov and 14th Dec 2020 by Jihadist Fulani Herdsmen, masqueraded as “Bandits”, in Christian areas located in Rafi, Munya and Shiroro Local Government Areas of Niger State, North-Central Nigeria and as we speak, most of them are nowhere to be found or located.  In other words, they are presumed killed in captivity.

 

Further Statistics On Abduction Of Christians By Jihadist Herdsmen

 

Below is the summary of abductions by Jihadist Fulani Herdsmen, masqueraded as “Bandits”, in Kajuru Local Government Area of Kaduna State, one of the Christian dominated areas in the State. The list, compiled by leaders of the Southern Kaduna Dev Union (SOKAPU) and the Adara Dev Association; two indigenous Christian associations in the State; contains the names of defenseless Christians abducted in the Local Government between 5th Nov and 15th Dec 2020.

 

 

 

Names Of Abducted Christians & Scenes Of Their Abduction

 

5/11/20 at OBIYA KUTURA STATION

 

1. Umaru Obiya

 

2. Hussaini Umaru

 

3. Maman Dangyatu Umaru.

 

 

 

11/11/20 at DOGON NOMA

 

1. Danjuma Ali and his wife

 

2. Mrs. Jummai Danjuma Ali

 

22/11/20 at GYENGYERE

 

1. Mrs. Rayuwa Inusa

 

2. Mathias Bitrus

 

3. Irimiya Paul

 

 4. Mrs. Zulai Jacob

 

 

 

25/11/20 at Kajuru Station

 

1. Rev. Inusa Bitrus and son

 

2. Yunana Inusa Bitrus

 

 

 

29/11/20 between Gyengyere and Kajuru Station

 

1. Labari Barwa Gyengyere

 

2. Kayi Tijjani Kajuru Station

 

3. John Musa

 

 

 

1/12/20 at AGUBA

 

1. Shedrach Sabo, son of the Pastor of the Baptist Church.

 

 

 

6/12/20 at Ungwan Wahala

 

1. Amos Jibo

 

2. Okpol Jibo

 

Three motorcycles were carted away also.

 

 

 

6/12/20 at Kaso

 

1. Inusa Rumbu was killed when he resisted.

 

 

 

7/12/20 at Kajuru Station

 

1. Danjuma Audi was killed on his farm before his 13 years old son.

 

 

 

15/12/20 at Angwaku

 

1. Philip Agas

 

2. Zephaniah Agas

 

3. Linus Shittu

 

4. Miss Nancy Angwaku.

 

 

 

The first three above were taking their sick brother, Hassan Agas, to the hospital when they were stopped by the Jihadist Fulani Herdsmen (Fulani Bandits) and forced to drop their sick brother on the ground, after which their abductors made away with them till this moment! In the process of escaping with the abductees through Kajuru Station, the Fulani Jihadist kidnappers had opened fire on the residents injuring four (one of whom is still in a very critical condition) and killing two. Those killed were

 

1.Titus Danjuma Dantaro, 28, married with 2 children

 

2. Julius Namiji Kujeni, 39, married with 5 children.

 

 

 

Finally, what baffled us most on the latest 15/12/20 jihadist Fulani Herdsmen attack was that the situation was reported to the Military base in Kajuru town and three soldiers went with some Mobile Police men in ‘pursuit’ of the jihadist attackers, joined by some of our local vigilantes.  But we were shocked to hear that when they got the scene and saw the abductors with the abducted Christian victims and some victims of the shootings, they simply turned and zoomed off. There are many people in Kajuru LGA, all Christians, who are still living under fear including receiving   regular threat calls of imminent abduction by the Jihadist Fulani kidnappers.

 

 

 

Nigerian Government Policy Of “No Shooting & No Arrest” Of Jihadist Fulani Herdsmen

 

This “above the law” and “kill at will” license and policy has been sustained by the Nigerian Government since its emergence in mid 2015. It has been reported severally by eyewitnesses, survivors and leaders of the victims’ communities as well as former military top brasses (i.e. Retired Gen Theo Danjuma in 2018). In Southern Kaduna, for instance, leaders of the Southern Kaduna Dev Union and Adara Dev Association and other key Christian figures in the State have severally informed Intersociety that the Nigerian Military particularly soldiers have been colluding with Jihadist Fulani Herdsmen to attack them. Apart from sighting military helicopters hovering around their areas moments before being attacked and killed by the Jihadist Fulani Herdsmen, they have also reported the conspiratorial conducts of soldiers in the killing of their fellow native Christians and burning or destruction of their worship and learning centers and other properties.

 

 

 

In attacks launched months ago on them, soldiers contacted hours after the attacks, joined by local vigilantes in pursuit of the assailants, were reported to have backed off and retreated after locating the hillsides where the Jihadists had escaped with their abducted victims. According to a notable leader of a Southern Kaduna Christian Community: “Even when under fire or attack by the automatic rifles’ wielding Jihadist Fulani Herdsmen, the soldiers must retreat and not to return fire, because they are under firm instruction by order from above not to shoot or arrest them”. Any drafted senior Army officer that goes out of the way to arrest them, not to talk of shooting at them, runs the greatest risk of ruining his career including premature retirement or immediate demotion and transfer out of the area to Boko Haram heavily controlled area.  

 

 

 

The Nigerian security forces particularly soldiers of the Nigerian Army have also been found to have turned their weapons against the same victim population whose members were attacked and killed by the Jihadist Fulani Herdsmen. These they do by way of mass arrest of their members who survived the jihadist attacks. Sometimes they are killed and labeled “bandits”. At other times, security forces especially soldiers are caught by eyewitnesses and survivors colluding with jihadists to launch attacks against defenseless rural Christian population. We have in the course of our recent investigations discovered many of the above instances happening in Kaduna, Benue, Kogi, Taraba and Adamawa States. Sometimes when Christians are killed especially by Boko Haram or ISAWP in places like Borno, same Government will censor a news report claiming that “those killed are Muslims” or get Christians among them to be abominably buried against their faith or in another religious rites.

 

 

 

Nigerian Government Codification Of Pro Jihad Policies & Laws

 

The following  laws or legislative steps towards same (bills) have been put in place by the Nigerian Government in furtherance of its state policy in both clandestine and open support of radical Islamism: “RUGA” policy, “Military Ranching” policy, “annual Army military exercises” targeted at terrorization and ‘fulanization’ of Christian dominated areas of the North and the South including forceful settlement of Jihadist Fulani Herdsmen and their splinter groups in ancestral forests, bushes and farmlands owned by Christians in Igbo Land including Igbo parts of Benue, Kogi, Delta and Edo States. Others are the “National Livestock Transformation Plan”, the “Waterways Control Federal Bill” targeted at controlling and ‘fulanization’ of all water locations and waterways in Nigeria including lands and spaces from the water (river location) said to be measured six kilometers from the river; and “CAMA Act 2020” (targeted at stifling Christians, their leaders and churches). There are others not mentioned and highlighted here.

 

End.

 

 

 

This Special Report was researched and compiled for Intersociety by Emeka Umeagbalasi (Board Chair of Intersociety). He is a Criminologist & Graduate of Security Studies and holds Master’s Degree in Peace & Conflict Studies. Umeagbalasi is a recipient of numerous local and international human rights and humanitarian awards and certificates and has spent past 25 years as grassroots rights and democracy campaigner and activist. He was assisted in this special research report by Barr Chinwe Umeche, Head of Democracy & Good Governance, Barr Chidimma Udegbunam, Department of Campaign & Publicity,  Barr Obianuju Igboeli, Head of Civil Liberties & Rule of Law, Barr Ndidiamaka Chinaza Bernard, Head of Int’l Justice & Human Rights; and Comrade Samuel Kamanyaoku, Head of Field Data Collection & Documentation.

 

 

 

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